Towards an Understanding of Yugoslav Capabilities: CBW Research, Development, Production
Belgrade. In regards to CBW production, an ancient scribe from the environs of Belgrade once told ASA You can do whatever you want to do in NBC if you have the people, the pre-cursors and the production capability, and, Yugoslavia has everything. Professor Cosic also noted, on page 7 this issue, that Serbia has the technical capability, the knowledge and the infrastructure to produce chemical weapons. Although both statements imply capability - neither implies intent.
The very heart of the Yugoslav chem/bio agent and weapon research, development and production effort resides with the Military Technical Institute (MTI) which is located at # 10 Kataniceva Street in Belgrade. The MTIs primary CBW/NBC arm is its Department of Medical and Technical Protection which is located some12 kilometers away at Vojvede Stepe 445. This Department is responsible for the development of NBC requirements and the oversight on production to meet these requirements. This Department would have the expertise to reestablish the Mostar chemical agent/weapon facility at whatever location were deemed appropriate to the task.
1.The MTI, Belgrade maintains almost total control over NBC material acquisition, testing and distribution, funding and dispersements, research and development, NBC weapons programs and chemical agent development and production. Many of these responsibilities are handled by the Department of Medical and Technical Protection.
The MTI is also the interface and driving force for
the military in all dealings with the Yugoslav military
industrial complex. A leading NBC industrial organization
is the well known and respected Miloje Zakic chemical
complex in Krusevac. Zakic was producing masks for the
Army by the mid-1920s and is today responsible for
production of almost all NBC personal protection
equipment including masks, protective suits,
identification equipment, etc. Zakic, according to the
ABHO article on page 4, provided all facilities for the
modenization of the NBC school upon its relocation from
Belgrade to Krusevac. This included the laboratories
needed for defensive and offensive chemical weapons
2.The Military Medical Academy (MMA), Belgrade. The MMA is responsible for medical research and development including basic research in NBC medical protection across the chemical and biological spectrum. Basic and applied medical research covers the spectrum from T2 toxins to antidotal efficacy of atropine, HI-6 and diazepam to soman poisoning. The MMA maintains a very close relationship with the medical branch of MTIs Department of Medical and Technical Protection.
3.The Military Academies, Army, Navy and Air Force. The Army Military Academy, Belgrade, had the prime NBC academy with its Skolski Centar, Atomsko-Biolosko-Hemijske Odbrane, ABHO, in Krusevac (see page 3 for full details on the ABHO). The ABHO, which is today 54 years old, has to be classed as one of the very top NBC academies anywhere in the world. The NBC officer cadets worked with all classical CW agents and studied and practiced all aspects of defensive and offensive CBW.
4.The Military Technical Academy (MTA), which had been in Zagreb prior to the breakup, was the only Academy able to grant technical degrees; i.e., all engineering including chemical engineering. The MTA was the main supplier of technical personnel to the MTI Department of Medical and Technical Protection. ASA does not have additional information on a reconstituted MTA.
Some of the towns and cities that are mentioned in the CBW area include:
The preceding information is not all encompassing but it should help in understanding that the capabilities across the NBC offensive spectrum are substantial. It would do well for all of us to understand that a country, any country with the now rather common NBC production capabilities, will do whatever it feels it must do to protect its own national interest. Thinking good thoughts and saying good words from a distant and safe environment will not stop one weapon from being produced and eventually used. The only true stoppers are recognized solutions to the countrys perceived problem(s) - internal or external and/or the threat of use of a bigger stick. And are not treaties broken whenever a country deems it is in their self-interest to do so?
|For the Professional in Government and Industry with an interest in Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Defense, Disarmament and Verification; Emergency and Disaster Medical Planning; Industrial Health and Safety; and Environmental Protection|
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