Iraq’s Use of WMD: Chemical Warfare Attacks Against Iran and the Kurds

There have been increasing calls for the establishment of an International Tribunal to bring Saddam Hussein and his supporters, both inside and outside of Iraq, to justice for the use of WMD against both Iran and the Iraqi Kurdish population. Additionally, UNSCOM requested a complete accounting from Saddam on his CW attacks via airstrikes against Iran and the Kurds. UNSCOM, with this information, could help establish the total amount of chemical agent used vice estimated production, and, thus the veracity of Iraq’s claims on destruction of various agent stocks.

Knowing that Iraq would not be forthcoming on this request, ASA dug into its archives and provided the following information to an UNSCOM representative. You will note that at the beginning of the CW campaign, information on specifics was scarce. This changed with time as the number and intensity of Iraq CW attacks increased.

In addition to the above listed Iraqi attacks with chemical warfare agent, ASA did not list 51 attacks (after 1981) in which neither the number of casualties nor type of agent could be identified. ASA has had this information since 1989 and we are sure there is later information available that would further define the agents used and numbers of casualties identified, which we assume would be much higher.

We do know that Iran suffered in excess of 100,000 CW casualties and they are today flight following over 30,000 victims with regularly scheduled medical examinations and provision of required health care. As more CW victims are identified, health status and required care determined and long term rehabilitation programs established, their records are entered into the data base. The Iranian data base in this area is invaluable to the world body. Unfortunately, Iran has had to shoulder this Iraq induced burden without assistance or even offers of assistance from this same world body.

The CBMTS has been fortunate in that Iranian medical and science professionals continue to share their data base with the rest of the CBMTS members at each primary CBMTS meeting - the next being CBMTS III at the AC Laboratorium in Spiez, Switzerland from 11-17 July 1999.

The one truism we have learned is that once an individual becomes a CW mustard casualty, the individual will always be a casualty. There are no cures, there might be relief and that is usually only temporary. Saddam’s oil monies, as a first priority, must be used for medical restitution for the 100,000+ Iranian and the 20,000+ Iraqi Kurdish CW victims. The second priority would be restitution to the 85% of the Iraqi population that are Shites and Kurds and who are not part of the 15% minority population that controls Iraq and all actions of the UN within Iraq.

The following are the keys to the abbreviations used in the below table:

Key for table
- = unknown / not known

Delivery: AC = aircraft, AR = Artillery, MS = mortar shell

CW gas types:
M = generic mustard, blistering;
N = nerve gas; B = blood gas
T = tear gas
D = damper gas
Na = nausea gas

Date Location

Delivery

No. Casualties

C W Gas

1981        

13-Jan

Halaleh and Neykhazar

AR

10

-

21-Mar

Howeyzeh

MS

1

N

6-Mar

Allah Akbar Heights

AR

-

-

22-Jun

Pole Naderi

MS

-

-

20-Dec

Khoramshahr

AR

-

-

1982

       

23-Oct

Height 175

MS

-

M

27-Oct

Musiyan

AR

20

-

16-Nov

Height 175

AR

9

N

1983        

29-Mar

Sumaar

AR

4

-

8-Aug

Tamr Chin

AC

-

Na

8-Aug

Shiveh Rash

AC

24

M

8-Aug

Haaj Omraan

AC

-

M

9-Aug

Piranshahr

AC

10

-

9-Aug

Tamr Chin

AC

30

M

9-Aug

Piranshahr

AC

120

-

14-Aug

Ghamtareh Heights

AR

203

M

24-Sep

Bari Deraaz Heights

AR

4

-

21-Oct

Sar Doush

AR

3

-

23-Oct

Bademjan Village

AC

30

M

25-Oct

Baaneh

AC

8

-

26-Oct

Marivan

AR

16

-

28-Oct

Bayenjan Village

AR

-

M

8-Nov

Garmaab

AC

40

-

8-Nov

Panjvin

AC

77

N

1984        

5-Jan

Hoseiniyeh

MS

1

-

26-Feb

Shatte Ali

AC

-

M

27-Feb

Hour Alhoveyzeh

AC

1,100

M

10-Mar

Majnoun

AC

543

M

11-Mar

Majnoun

AC

20

M

14-Mar

Albeyzaa

AC

153

-

15-Mar

Hoseiniyeh

AR

50

-

18-Mar

Albeyzaa

AC

-

N

21-Mar

Hour Al Hoveyzeh

AC

370

N

24-Oct

Nosoud

AR

-

D + T

1985        

13-Mar

Dajle Shargh

-

200

D

13-Mar

SW of North Island

AC

324

N + B

13-Mar

W of North Island

AC

-

N

13-Mar

E o North Island

AC

-

N

13-Mar

W. of North Island

AC

-

N + B

13-Mar

South Island

AC

-

N + B

13-Mar

Pad Panj

AC

-

N

15-Mar

SW of the Island

AC

-

N

15-Mar

West of North Island

AC

-

N

15-Mar

Road between Kiyand Dasht and Shate Ali

AC

-

M

15-Mar

Eskeleh Shomali Shate Ali

AC

738

M

15-Mar

Se Rahe Fath

AR

-

N + M

15-Mar

Maghare 21 Emam Reza

AC

-

B

15-Mar

Ae Rahe Fath

AR

-

N + M

15-Mar

Pole Khaibar

AC

17

N + M

15-Mar

Avvale Jazire

AC

-

N + M

15-Mar

Mogheiyate Shahid Alavi

AC

10

N

15-Mar

Ae Rahe Jazireh

AC

30

N

15-Mar

Ghmr Bni Hshn Emr Cntr

AC

112

N, M + B

15-Mar

Se Rahe Khaibar

AC

4

N

15-Mar

Pole Ghadine Khaibar

AR

-

D

15-Mar

Pole Khaibar

AC

-

N

15-Mar

Pole 17 Jazireh

AC

-

N

16-Mar

Majnoun Island

AC

70

M

17-Mar

South of Majnoun Island

AR

-

N + M

17-Mar

Lashgare 12 Jazireh

AC

-

N

18-Mar

SW side of Majnoun

AC

-

M

19-Mar

South of Majnoun Island

AC

111

M

20-Mar

Ashoura Emergency Cntr

AC

-

M

8-Apr

Jofeir (3 attacks)

AC

14

N

8-Apr

Jofeir

AR

29

N

8-Apr

Hamid Base

AC

1,110

M

8-Apr

Hamid Base

AR

-

N

9-Apr

Majnoun Islands

AC

2

B

9-Apr

Jofier (2 attacks)

AR

255

B + D

9-Apr

Jofier

AC

199

D

9-Apr

Majnoun Islands

AR

5

M

10-Apr

Majnoun Islands (2 attacks)

AC

13

N

14-Apr

Jofier

AC

6

N

17-Apr

Khoramshahr

AC

2

N

17-Apr

Abaadan

AR

3

N

18-Apr

Ain-E-Khosh

MS

5

N

2-Nov

Khoramshahr

AR

8

-

1986        

13-Feb

Abaadan

AC

11

M

13-Feb

Abaadan

AR

20

M

13-Feb

Fow-Road-Bassreh

AC

8,500

M + N

15-Feb

Jofier (2 attacks)

AC

25

N + M

15-Feb

Abaadan

AC

-

M

16-Feb

Khosroaabaad

AC

6

M

17-Feb

Abaadan

AC

27

M

18-Feb

Khosroaabaad

AC

17

M

20-Feb

Abaadan

AC

5

N

20-Feb

Ain-E-Khoch

AR

3

B

27-Feb

Fow

AC

23

-

1987        

12-Jan

Arnd Martyr Dezfuly Rd

AC/AR

-

M + N

13-Jan

Down of Mearaj Rd

AC/AR

-

M + B

14-Jan

Abaadan Milk Factory

-

4

N

14-Jan

Hq South Ops

-

38

-

14-Jan

W. of Shalamcheh

AC/AR

-

M + B

15-Jan

Martyr Amaani Road

AC/AR

-

M

16-Jan

E. of Jaasem River

AR

-

M + B

18-Jan

E. of Jaasem River

AR

-

M + B

21-Jan

Logistics Roads

AC/AR

-

M + B

24-Jan

Martyr Ahmad Golzari Rd

AC

-

M + B

25-Jan

Mil. Equip. Workshop

MS/AC

-

M + B

27-Jan

Arvand Road

AR

-

M

28-Jan

Khoramshahr

AC

-

M

29-Jan

Artil’ Emplacement

AR/MS

-

M, B + N

1-Feb

Karballa 5, Ops Theater

AR/AC

-

M, B + N

2-Feb

Motor Pool, 48th Fath

AR

-

M

6-Feb

Karballa 5, Ops Theater

AC

50

M

6-Feb

Khoramshahr

AC

-

M

14-Feb

S.E. Majnoun Island

AC

640

N + M

14-Mar

S.W. Majnoun Island

AC

-

N

14-Mar

Ghmar. Emer. Center

AC

-

N

14-Mar

POW Camp Majnoun Isl.

AC

-

N + D

14-Mar

Ghmar. Emer. Center

AC

80

N + B

16-Mar

Hazraterasoul Div.

AC

-

N

16-Mar

S. Majnoun Island

AC

298

N

16-Mar

N. Majnoun Island

AC

-

B + M

16-Mar

Kaibar Bridge

AR

-

D

16-Mar

Serah-E-Fath

AC

-

N

16-Mar

Majnoun Island

AC

-

N

16-Mar

POW Camp Majnoun Isl

AC

50

N

16-Mar

Martyr Rajaai Rd/Majnoun

AC

-

M

16-Mar

Cheraghi X Rds (Majnoun)

AC

-

N

16-Mar

Rasulalah Emer. Cntr.

AC

10

N

16-Mar

Vicinity Kosar Hq.

AC

241

M

18-Mar

Karbala 4 Ops Theater

MS

5

-

5-Apr

Baaneh

AC

10

-

7-Apr

Karbala 8 Ops Theater

AC/AR

6

M

8-Apr

Karbala 8 Ope Theater

AC

7

B + M

10-Apr

Khoramshshr

-

21

-

15-Apr

Many Kurdish Village (Iraq)

-

-

-

16-Apr

Solimaniyeh/Arbil (Iraq)

AC

450

M

7-May

Baaneh-Bulhassen/Soroul

AC

90

-

8-May

Gharahdagh Village

AC

21

-

28-Jun

4 areas in Sardasht

AC

8,025

M

29-Jun

Gallehvash Vill. (Sardasht)

AC

132

M

29-Jun

Main Hq in Sardasht

AC

2

-

30-Jun

Fath 7 Ops Theater

AC

16

-

8-Oct

Karbala 6 Ops Thea (Sumar)

-

100

N

1988        

12-Mar

Garmaab in Baakhtaran

AC

5

-

16-Mar

Halabja/area arnd Khormaal

AC

3,500

-

18-Mar

Halabja

AC

9,000

-

22-Mar

Ghalejy Village in Marivan

AC

450

-

22-Mar

Alout area in Sardasht

AC

8

-

22-Mar

Tazeh Aabaad, Baalak, Nezhmaar, Ghalejy Vill’s.

AC

395

-

98-6, issue no. 69


For the Professional in Government and Industry with an interest in Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Defense, Disarmament and Verification; Chemical and Biologicgal Terrorism: Emergency and Disaster Medical Planning; Industrial Health and Safety; and Environmental Protection